Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE and is clouded in controversy. However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11 th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11 th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.
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A Canberra man jailed for abducting and raping a woman who had been lured on the dating app known as Tango, has told the ACT Court of Appeal his sentence is too long. Adjitpal Singh, 32, was sentenced to 12 years in jail with a non-parole period of eight years after being found guilty by a jury last year. The jury found a second man guilty of the same crimes, but he was sentenced to eight years in jail with a non-parole period of five-and-a-half years.
The victim had made contact with the second man on Tango and arranged to meet him to have sex. But when she arrived at the agreed place, a second man was also present and she tried to back out. Singh’s lawyer Ken Archer said the seriousness of the crime was acknowledged but his client was punished too severely. Mr Archer also complained his client was much more severely punished than his co-accused. Chief Justice Helen Murrell pointed out that some of the sentences on individual counts were the highest ever imposed.
But Director of Public Prosecutions Jon White told the court the facts need to be looked at carefully. Mr Archer told the court the evidence was that it was not clear a plot had been hatched to abduct the victim and take her to the flat for sex. News Home. Print content Print with images and other media. Print text only. Print Cancel.
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The phenomenon has changed dramatically to think it used to be email only to incorporate social media and modern communication. In actual fact now would be the best time for an online dating service to go mainstream in Zimbabwe. As far as target markets are concerned Zimbabwe is primed for dating services.
Gold comes from the nearby Zimbabwe plateau and its exploitation probably dates from the tenth century, possibly using the same social networks that had been.
An ideology based on the hierarchical triad of land, ancestors, and belief in God underwrote custodial rights and extractive powers that at times enabled rulers to access a share of productive, allocative, and circulative activities in their territories. Simultaneously, households and communities freely participated in the economy, often inside and outside state control and influence, demonstrating the individual, collective, mixed, embedded, and capillary nature of the political economy.
When dealing with a small sample such as is available for early civilizations, data must be considered within a more contextualized framework if researchers are to understand their significance Trigger, , p. As a theoretical and analytical approach to archaeology, political economy—the study of social relations based on unequal access to wealth and power—has a relatively deep history and is popular in the Anglophone archaeological tradition Chacon and Mendoza ; Cobb ; Earle ; Feinman ; Haas ; Hirth ; McIntosh ; Roseberry ; Smith ; Stahl ; Yoffee The approach has been influential in Mesoamerica and Mesopotamia, where scholars of varying theoretical shades, from Marxists to substantivists, have over time explored topics ranging from the importance of hierarchical and heterarchical logics, relations of production, distribution mechanisms, and among others class entanglements and inequality in the political economy of premodern states and urban systems Crumley ; Earle ; Ehrenreich et al.
Despite this thematic diversity, archaeological studies of political economy have not remained static over time. Old approaches to political economy, particularly those influenced by Marxist theoretical filaments, tended to couple control of production and labor to account for the evolution of complex societies in regions such as Bronze Age Eurasia within a culture historical and evolutionary perspective Childe By the late s, substantivists such as Polanyi Polanyi et al.
Following Wallerstein , world systems theories have focused on the importance of existing relationships and networks of interaction between different areas and regions to document large-scale social networks e. While political economic theories continue to improve e. And yet, the inhabitants of some regions labeled as peripheries in parts of Asia and Africa and virtually everywhere made conscious decisions to be stateless and interacted with the so-called cores in their own ways, demonstrating variability in human strategies across space and time Scott This and other limitations precipitated the emergence of newer approaches that explored the mix of strategies employed by societies through collective and individual action to produce, manipulate, mobilize, and allocate resources in different places and at different points in time Blanton and Fargher ; DeMarrais and Earle ; Feinman and Carballo ; Feinman and Nicholas ; Hirth ; Smith These newer models that are based on the examination of the local context within a broader perspective reject the bifurcation of control of political economies into monolithic categories such as command based or decentralized and instead view them as a mix of strategies, collective action included, that could be adopted by households in state and nonstate societies alike e.
By far, the application of the concept of political economy to African archaeology lags behind global trends and, in some cases, is still glommed to older theories whose utility has been questioned for other regions such as Mesoamerica.
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Sometimes, even friendships can be as strong as brotherhood or sisterhood. However, growing urbanisation, Christianity and the effects of European colonialism have contributed to a trend towards nuclear families, monogamous marriages and individualism in the cities. Extended family units comprising multiple generations are still visible in rural areas, meanwhile the immediately family usually lives alone in urban areas. However, even in nuclear households, one still has deep connections and obligations to other relatives, especially in times of need.
For example, if elders get sick, they will move in so the family can take care of them. Furthermore, if relatives have recently moved into town, the family will allow them to live in their house until they find suitable arrangements.
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Social and dating apps have become a part of our daily routine. All of this has turned such apps into a depository of private data, including things like intimate photos. Security researchers have analyzed the most popular mobile dating and social search apps Tinder, Bumble, OkCupid, Badoo, Mamba, Zoosk, Happn, WeChat, and Paktor in order to evaluate the main risks they may pose to users.
The owners of the above-mentioned services have been promptly notified of the assessment results, therefore some of them have already taken care of the vulnerabilities in their products. Some, however, have allegedly committed themselves to fixing the issues in the near future. The analysts have discovered that 4 out of 9 apps allowed potential malefactors to figure out who it is behind an alias.
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